Wanted a young woman to study pharmacy Wanted a young man to learn the drug trade
During August and September 1903 the Atlanta Journal published these blind advertisements in its classified pages and many of the young men and women who were flocking that fall to the southeast's communications, education, financial, and transportation hub, already dubbed the "gate city" probably contacted the address, expecting to find an apprenticeship offer. The solicitation, however, was not for a job, but for the opportunity to enroll in a new pharmacy college, Southern College of Pharmacy Most of the twenty-seven men who did enroll October x, though few if any of the three women, where those who responded to the advertisements.
It was pharmacists from among the brash, city, started 60 years earlier as a railroad terminus, burnt by Sherman's troops 40 years earlier, then phoenix like risen into a cluster of highrise office bilding, now owning 60 licenced pharmacies in streetcar distance of the Five Points center of the city, who encouraged their apprentices to enroll. Word of the new college spread beyond Georgia as students from several different southeastern states joined the first class.
Reporters from both the Atlanta Journal and the Southern Drug Journal reported the ceremonies that marked the opening, the day after the first registration. The first chairman of the Board of Trustees of Southern College of Pharmacy, John Temple Graves, former editor of the Atlanta Journal, a noted orator, made the opening remarks. Following him, former Georgia govenor Northen, long time member of Mercer University's Board of Trustees and now a member of the Board of Southern College of Pharmacy, added his own words. The previous month Northen had attended the opening ceremonies for Mercer University's own new pharmacy school in Macon Georgia.
The editor of the Southern Drug Journal noted that there were three new pharmacy schools opening that fall in a state where there was already a thriving school, the Atlanta College of Pharmacy. In fact the fouth college at the University of Georgia was authorized by its Board of Trustees the previous spring, but it would not enrolle students until 1905, nor graduate a class until 1908.
The long time dean of the University of Georgia, Wilson, author of the first history of Georgia pharmacy, first employed to teach pharamcy at the University in 1914 was unable to explain why the sudden rush into pharmacy education at that time. The Georgia Board of Pharmacy examiners licenced pharmacists on examination. Applicants would not need to present evidence of a pharmacy diploma until 1933. However, the Georgia Pharmaceutical Association, founded in 1877 largely to bring pharmacy licensure from the physician control that began with the 1825 act authorizing the medical exmaining board, to pharmacist control, using the AphA model law as a template for the 187..Georgia law, was constantly keeping before its members the vision of formal pharmacy education for the state's druggists.
With one exception, all pharmacy schools in the United States were east of the Mississipi and with the exception of the Maryland College of Pharmacy and a shortlived school in Charleston, in the northeastern states. A select group from Georgia attended these schools, returning to Georgia to advocate and education pharmacist cadre in their state. These schools were founded and maintained by urban pharmacy associations. The post civil war pharmcy school movement occurred in the new state universities. Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska included pharmacy among their first professional schools. Alabama's land grant college in Auburn was offering a four year BS in pharmacy by 1895. However, though Georgia was able to boast the oldest chartered states university in the nation, by the 1890s the University of Georgia presidents had decided to limit the university offerings to a liberal program for males only. Georgia founded a technical school in Atlanta under the auspices of the University of Georgia Trustees, but when the Georgia Pharmaceutical Association were unsuccessful in persuading the Trustees to start a pharmacy school there.
In the meantime, the Georgia Pharmaceutical Association members were learning that applicants from Georgia were failing the state board examination. Pharamcists licenced without examination when the initial 1877 law was passsed were now retiring and there were insufficient replacements filling the ranks. An increasing number of drugstores were operating without licenced pharmacists.
In 1892 George Frederick Payne, a graduate of the New York College of Pharmacy and chairman of the State Board of Pharmacy took advantage of a provision in the charter of the Atlanta College of Physicians and Surgeons to begin teaching pharmacy. The following year the school conferred the PhG to four students. However, the student enrollment remained limited.
In the Macon area there was a concentration of graduates of both the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the first pharmacy in the nation, charter 73 years earlier, and the New York College of Pharmacy, the country's second pharmacy college. Mercer University, a Baptist institution was located in Macon. The institution was made up of a liberal arts college, attended primarily by males, and a law school. By 1903 the Board of Trustees approved founding a pharmacy school, and was prepared to house the students in a new science building.
Thus, when Southern College of Pharmacy began soliciting students it was competing with another established pharmacy college in Atlanta, a new school in Macon, and the promise of one at the University in Athens.
The founders , Crenshaw, Everhart, and Hood left to historians ample documentation through catalogs, graduation photographs, and ledgers that recorded the curriculum, finances, faculty, and names of students enrolled. They did not leave reports or correspondence explaining why they founded a proprietary school that October. By 1903 there were few for profit pharmacy schools in the country, and most of the schools that had began as independent colleges had affiliated with state of private universities.
Whatever their motivation, what is known is that Everhart and Crenshaw attended the x meeting of the Georgia Pharamceutical Association in Macon Georgia for the first and last time. There they heard that the Association hoped to have the legislature pass a law requiring all applicants for the state board exmaination be pharmacy college graduates.
A month later, June, Crenshaw and Everhart were joined by Hood, one of those four 1892 graduates of the Atlanta College of Pharmacy in forming a stock company that received a twenty-year charter from Fulton County Georgia to operate a pharmacy school withint the county boundries, which included most of Atlanta, authorized to confer the PhG, PhC and PharmD degrees.
Southern College of Pharmacy's first historian Aldredge, who joined the faculty in the early 1920s, a number of years after Hood had achived the deanship and Crenshaw and Everhart were no longer teaching, stated that it was Crenshaw and Everhart who sought out Hood. If this be true then it was not a pharmacist but a physician and chemist who initially planned the school. Since Crenshaw was the first president and Everhart taught in 1903/04, but did not continue teaching continuously, it may well be that it was Hansell Crenshaw originiated the plan to start the college.
Hansell Crenshaw had the opportunity to observe his father William Crenshaw's experience in developing pharmacy education in Atlanta, The Crenshaw brother, William, Thomas and Jefferson, were among the first Atlanta area dentists educated after the Civil war in the nation's oldest dental school the Maryland Dental College, founded in 184x. They joined the faculty of Atlanta's Southern Dental College, founded in 18x as a unit of the Southern Medical College, a new rival to Atlanta's first medical college the Atlanta Medical College, which began with a state charter and state funding in 1855. Then William Crenshaw became the first dean in 189x, of a rival dental college the Atlanta Dental College. Advertising for the college stated that this was a college operated by dentists, not a medical school.
Nationally there was a trend for pharmacy educators to object to pharmacy schools under the control of medical colleges. Three years earlier Payne had joined other pharmacy educators at the AphA Richmond meeting to help found the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. Payne submitted an application for charter membership for the ACP. However, when the ACPF Executive Board reviewed the qualificaiton of the applicant schools, ACP was rejected on the grounds that it was controlled by a medical school. Payne never reapplied.
While this is but conjecture, it may well be that 26 year old Hansell Crenshaw, a 1900 graduate of the Atlanta College of Physicians and Surgeons, newly married, sharing offices on Peachtree Street, near the heart of Atlanta with his dental uncle, Jefferson Crenshaw, was finding competition for patients intense, and was looking for a way to supplement his income.
While Crenshaw may not have known how the Philadelphia pharmacists set about starting their school, he followed the exact pattern. He set up chairs of materia medica and pharmacy and of chemistry, adding instructors in physiology, law, and botany. As in Phildelphia, there were many qualfied practioners able to step up the street from their busy practices to deliver a few hours lecutures, and accept payment by the class. Atlanta's office buildings were honeycombed as were other major cities with classrooms adjacent to dental, medical practices, artists studios, regional branch offices of a multitude of companies, nonprofit organizations, and even some small manufacturers. 10/11/01 10:23 AM
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy began with evening classes in the x building in downtown Philadephia in 1821. Southern College of Pharmacy began classes on Broad St. It is not clear where classes were held on Board St., several blocks to the south of the center of the city, and an equal distance to the north of the railroad tracks where x trains barrelled through daily. The Atlanta City Dirctory places the first address at x Broad Street, but there are other references to both the Grant Building and Atlanta Gas Light Company Building, also on Broad St.
Crenshaw was prepared to teach physiology, an unusual class then for pharamcy schools, and there were physicians nearby qualifed to teach materia media. He recruited an extremely well qualifed chemistry teacher who had once been a colleage of his step-mother's at Cox College, a woman's college located in College Park, where both Hansell and his father were living. Edgar Everhart, held the PhD in Chemistry from the University of H, had taught chemistry at Stevens Institution in New Jersey and come to teach at Cox College in 1894 after organizing the first chemistry department at the University of Texas.
While the evidence is circumstantial, Everhart may have then recruited Hood for the chair of pharmcy, because he was working for a chemical company located in the same block as the Hood and Roberts Drug Store.
In any case the physician, chemist, and pharmacist joined together as both stockholders and faculty and sometime that summer planned a curriculum and selected other faculty. The American Conference of Pharamceutical Faculties standard for membership required that member schools required of students a "…..", and that the course be offered over two years and include x hours of laboratory and lecture. According to the initial catalog published in x, entering students had to present " ", and the classes, which included physiology, materia medica, chemistry, pharmacy, law, and botany cover x hours. There were divided into two sessions. However, the catalog emphasized that rather than taking the classes in two different years a student could take the October through April session, and follow it immediately with a May to October session and graduate in a year.
The catalog also informed the student that the program would operate on a six day week. Junior and senior classes would be offered on alternate days. In this way junior and senior student s could share a pharmacy job. While such institutions as the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were then discouraging students from working while in school, Southern College of Pharmacy encouraged work. The founders followed a system in place at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, requiring students present not only classroom and labortory work for graduation, but evidence that they had work for three years in a licenced pharmacy. Since the Georgia State Board of Pharmacy required experience before permitting applicants to stand for the licensure board, this meant that once the student graduated he could immediately take the board examination.
The founders believed that students should be informed of new medical and pharmaceutical practices. A library alcove was set aside in the facility, and pictured in the catalog. Students and fauculty were to gather weekly to discuss current literature.
Crenshaw and his colleagues offered part time teaching positions to three other fauclty members. Madison Bell taught law, Archibald Smith MD , born in Roswell, Georgia near Crenshaw's birthplace, taught botany, and Niles, MD instructed students in materia medica.
The curriculum was built around textbooks in physiology, chemistry, materia medica and pharmacy. The catalog specified not only what books were to be used, but on which days the specific chapters in each book was to be covered. Assuming faculty adhered to this schedule it is possible to ascertain exactly what students were learning.
While not a "quiz school" a pejorative used to describe many proprietary pharmacy schools, the program never lost sight of the fact the ultimate goal was to prepare the student to pass a state board examination. There were six hours of quizes schedule each week with three students appoint quizmasters. In addition to this there was a monthly general examination.
Tuition was set at x. According to the ledger carefully maintained for the stockholders, students paid x between October and April 1903/04, expenses were x leaving a surplus of $x .
Crenshaw, a talented violinist helped entertain faculty an students at a spring musical prior to graduation, but the graduation itself, as predicted in the catalog, was modest by Atlanta standards. Most of the city's professsional schools rented one of the city auditoriums and employed an orchestra. Musical selections alternated with speeches and conferring of degrees.
April x x students graduated, including Archibald Smith. They received the PhG. The calalot stated that postgraduate work might be offered but such a program never developed. The Board of Trustess which had now bugetary or curricula approproval powers did participate in graduations from the beginning, and the Chairman….presented the first diplomas.
The new school concluded its first session successfully. In April the advertisements began again in the Atlanta Journal classified section, but this time there were no "blind" advertisements. The "young lady" who might consider studying pharmacy was instructed to contact Dr. Hansell Crenshaw, President College of Pharmacy at. ….
Times were properous, Atlantans were purchasing automobiles locally for the first time. 10/11/01 10:57 AM. Nationally the Congress was considering food and drug legislation. Another group class of students graduated at the end of the summer, and in October classes resumed. Southern College of Pharmacy was now an established institution in Atlanta. There was some faculty turnover. Everhart stopped teaching and Crenshaw took over the chemistry class. X replaced Madison Bell in the law class.
What the institution lacked was adequate facilities, and a development among medical educators in Atlanta in 1905 led to not only adequte but outstanding facilities for the new school two years later. Some faculty from the Atlanta College of Physicians and Surgeons withdrew from the college at the beginning of the summer to start a new medical school. Its dean, Jones was a nephew of the ACPS's dean Kendrick, and had gratuated in 1900 with Hansell Crenshaw from the ACPS. William Crenshaw was invited to serve as a trustee of the new medical college.
Classes began fall 1905 in the Masonic Annuity Building which also housed the Atlanta College of Dentisty where William Crenshaw was dean. Hansell Crenshaw was teaching in the dental college at the time and became a member of the ASM faculty. The new college immediately began planning its new building, to match a similar building under construction by the ACPS. The ASM would locate in the same block as the new Tabernacle Infirary and School of Nursing, a medical complex that the Rev. Broughton, MD had begun in 1900 as part of a larger plan that included a central city missionary church, the Georgia Tabernacle. Hood had been one of the Atlanta Baptists who played a role in established the new church.
The ASM building included facilities specifically for the pharmacy program. Pharmacy students shared the tier classroom, chemistry laboratory, and the library, but there was a dispensing laboratory tailored for the pharmacy classes, and am apothecary style drug store opposite a free dispensary where medical students examined and prescribed for indigent patients. Not only could students fill prespriptions for these ambulatory patients, the medical school operated its own small hospital in the basement.
The Atlanta City Directory located SCP at the medical school Luckie Street address in 1906, but the following year, placed it at the Masonic Annuity Building with the dental students. SCP historian Aldredge referred to the school relocating for a year for remodling. Perhaps this happened on this occasion, and not an earlier year as reported by Aldredge.
In 1906 the pharmacy law class added a new topic, the new Food and Drug Law passed signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, xxxx. Many hoped that this would strengthen the professional role of the pharmacist, already seen as threatened by the drug manufacturers who had taken over the art of compounding from the drug store. It did not happen. Pharmacist were dispensing more and more drugs that arrived prepackaged by the manufacturers. "Count and pour, lick and stick" was already a pejorative druggists bore. Drug analysis for quality occurred at the manufacturing level. There was no need for the "chemist on the corner".
Joseph Jacobs, an Atlanta pharmacist, is credited by Kremers and Urdang as one of the founders of the cut rate drugs store and his new drug store emporium situated at the very heart of city city. Jacob included many of the good of department store, a liquor store and had a soda fountain. Other stores in the city were still less general stores, but Jacobs had set a trend many were following.
In 1907, three years after the first students enrolled the curriculum had expanded. The catlaog boasted that SCP was offering the only history of pharmacy class in the country. More meaningful to the student's future career was a new class taught by Brawner, named "Serum Therapy". Some years earlier Brawner had opened a clinic to offer a new clinic to treat rabies victims across the state. A few years later Georgia's new public health department took over the operation of the clinic.
The efforts of the few pharmacy schools belonging to the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties had aspirations of raising